A recent study performed by University College London and published in The Lancet revealed the top risk factors associated with the development of dementia:
high blood pressure
midlife hearing loss
In the most surprising finding from the study, the single most significant risk factor in accelerated cognitive decline was midlife hearing loss, accounting for 9% of the risk of dementia. Research has not yet shown whether treating hearing loss in these cases is associated with reduction in the risk of developing dementia.
It is also not yet understood why hearing loss increases the risk of dementia, but researchers theorize that hearing loss leads to social isolation, another risk factor. Another theory is that the brain must work harder to decode degraded sounds, and the repeated effort has a negative impact on neural resources.
“What keeps your brain healthy is a cognitively rich environment,” said Livingston. “One of the easiest ways to get that is to talk. [But] people who can’t hear often avoid complex social situations.”
Additional research on hearing loss and dementia was the subject of a pilot study and a pending clinical trial by the Lin Research Group at Johns Hopkins University studying hearing loss treatment a group of 70-84 year olds at risk for cognitive decline.
Care homes for the elderly or disabled have a promising future due to aging populations, the trends in closure of the more expensive nursing home model, and the growing desire for people to be cared for in the most home-like settings. It has become a growth industry.
But, a growing demand combined with a desire to serve it are not enough for you to enter and succeed in this industry. You must be licensed by the state in which the care home is located, and each state has a litany of requirements for your home to be licensed.
Do your research. Know what types of care homes can be licensed where you are considering starting one. Know what kind of care is required for your residents. Know the home requirements, the staffing requirements, the time from submitting your license application and materials to, if all is done right, when you are licensed and can open your care home. Get a good idea of the financial requirements, including the cost of purchasing/leasing and (likely) modifying a home, establish a financial reserve, project your likely projected revenues and expenses, and other impacts on financing the business. Perhaps most of all, do the necessary research — visit current care homes, talk to residents, owner/operators — to gain an understanding of what it takes to start and run a successful care home.
Pick your state. The state you in which you live is not necessarily the state you want for your care home. State-by-state variations in the stringency of requirements for licensing, moratoriums on certain new care home types*, complexity of the licensing process, local demand for care homes, and other key factors can and do often cause care home providers to license in a different state.
(*e.g., Massachusetts adult foster homes, six month moratorium starting 4/1/2017)
Pick your care home type. Personal care homes, group homes, adult family homes, adult foster care, assisted living facilities, residential healthcare facilities — there are many types of homes, each with its own set of requirements for the facility, its licensing, staffing, operations.
Adult or youth.
Developmentally disabled or intellectually disabled
Medicaid certification or accepting Medicaid waiver patients
The home type you may choose, the type of residents and their needs, where the home may be located are all influenced by requirements at the state, county, and municipal levels. The requirements for licensing, oversight, ongoing regulation, even the definitions of home types states may license — can vary dramatically. Some states mandate that you have a home purchased/leased before you get licensed, while others require you to wait. Some counties/municipalities require an architect to submit a floor plan. Some counties and municipalities require water/sewer to be connected to the city system and may reject homes on well/septic systems. Depending upon the size and type of the home, some states/counties/municipalities may require a sprinkler system. DON’T buy a care home without knowing the requirements.
Get the right staff. The type of care home, its residents, and the services provided to them require appropriate staffing. Know how many staff you need and their required background/skills/experience.
Pay attention to details. Licensing offices are rarely forgiving — miss a required form or fill it out incorrectly and it may delay your licensing or even hurt your chances to get licensed. It is therefore critically important to pay attention to the regulations regarding:
Home type, location
Required applications and supportive documents.
Factors to watch out for.
Financial reserves. Most states have a minimum financial reserve (reserve funds or a line of credit) to ensure normal operations and care of residents in the event of a drop in revenues, sudden unexpected expenses, or both. For some states, the reserve is three months’ expenses. For others, it’s one month, while others have a reserve based on your submitted pro forma operating budget. The financial reserve is a major stumbling block for many.
Zoning. Counties and municipalities dictate whether your planned care home can operate at that location. While care homes may be viewed by zoning board more favorably than other businesses (with store fronts, business hours, etc.), you need to ensure that your care home has zoning approval.
Resident limits. States have upper and/or lower limits on the number of residents allowed in each facility type. Some states also let you have a maximum number of residents (usually 2) without needing any licensing.
The owner/operator may need to attend a state-mandated orientation or course.
State construction requirements.
A detailed business plan and pro forma financials may be required.
It is sometimes difficult to find quality caregivers for residential care homes, also called personal care homes. A quality caregiver should be someone who provides daily activities for the residents, show initiative and quick response, demonstrate sound judgement and provide confident care.
Hiring a caregiver at times can be a little overwhelming. There are many issues to consider before opening the classifieds, calling caregiver agencies, and searching the Internet for independent contractors. Since this is stepping into unknown territory, it’s a good idea to leverage word of mouth referrals from family members and friends. Knowing what to do, how to do it, and when to do it is a huge part of finding a quality caregivers for residential care homes. With that said, here are three suggestions to help find quality caregivers for a residential care homes.
Caregiver Agencies – Hiring caregiver agencies can be expensive, but a lot of them are bonded and insured. It is important to ask the agency if they provide employees to do the work. Some agencies recruit caregivers looking for work from a referral list and do not perform background checks before hiring them. Reputable agencies ensure their caregivers pass criminal background checks, screening for communicable diseases, and are trained in CPR and first aid. However, if the caregiver does not work out, you can request a replacement. Also, agency CNAs may have nurses assigned to the residential care home to ensure that policies and procedures are being followed. Remember, you are hiring quality caregivers for a 24/7 operation. Bottom line, it takes money, time, and energy to provide consistent, high-quality care to your residents. It should not be something you enter into lightly.
Independent Contractor – This may be more affordable, but be careful! Find out if the caregiver has a current certified nursing assistant license. This will ensure the person can provide basic care for your residents. Also, perform a criminal background check and verify the caregiver’s references. If everything seems legitimate, ask family members to sit in during the interview to confirm they feel comfortable with this person before caring for your special loved one. One thing you can do is call CNA schools to get staff members. CNA schools are always looking to place their qualified students in externships, temporary and permanent jobs.
In-Home Respite Care Services – It is vitally important to take care of yourself as you take care of your residents and loved ones. Plan your relief by assessing your needs. Some of these might include personal free time during the day to run errands, transporting residents, or daily activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, laundry, etc.). Some caregiver agencies offer this service to provide temporary or regular support to caregivers that work a 24/7 schedule. Other forms of non-medical respite breaks can be provided by family, friends, neighbors and volunteers from local retirement groups. Also consider college-bound students that need to fulfill community service hours, faith-based and non-profit organizations to cover short, non-medical in-home intervals.
Do You Want the Best Caregivers? – Are you comfortable with the people representing your brand? Are these people exceeding your expectations when it comes to implementing your systems, policies and procedures? Do you feel confident that your residents are receiving the best 24/7 care possible every single day? Now that you know how to find a quality caregiver, when are you going to spend the time, money, and energy to do it? Who is responsible to ensure that your residents are receiving the highest standard of care? Each caregiver has a lasting impact on your business, your residents, and your bottom line. Pick and choose wisely.
Care Consulting and Training (CCT) has helped hundreds of people get licensed throughout the country using their customized products, services, training, and consulting programs. Clients benefit from CCT’s experience… in navigating the maze of regulations and requirements to get licensed… in setting up and running a successful care home …in helping clients focus on creating sustainable businesses and stable homes for care home residents.